Reference Tables

Mulch Types and Ignition

Table 7.1: The Number of Times That Specific Mulch Types Ignited after Three Cigarettes Were Discarded on the Surface of the Mulch is Given.
Mulching Material Times Ignition Occurred
Ground recycled pallets 4
Composted yard waste 4
Shredded pine bark 3
Oat straw 2
Shredded cypress bark 2
Pine bark nuggets 1.3 to 2.5 cm 1
Decorative ground rubber 0
Pine straw (needles) 0
Shredded hardwood bark 0
Pine bark nuggets 2.5 to 5 cm 0
Cocoa shells 0
Bluegrass sod 0
Brick chips 0
Adapted from: THE EASE OF IGNITION OF 13 LANDSCAPE MULCHES by Larry G. Steward, T. Davis Sydnor, and Bert Bishop in the Journal of Arboriculture November 2003. Ignition of each mulch was attempted eight times (2 trials * 4 replicates) using lighted cigarettes.

Landscape Plants and Flammability Ratings

Table 7.2: A List of Common Landscape Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Groundcovers and Their Flammability Ratings.
Native (N)
N = Native to Mid-Atlantic
Use
S = Shade,
F = Foundation,
Sp = Specimen,
H = Hedge,
Sc = Screen,
GC = Ground Cover
Flame Rating (FR)
H = Very Flammable
M = Moderate
L = Low
Scientific Name Common Name N Use FR Comments
Acer negundo Boxelder N S L Tolerates poor soils, pH adaptable. Short lived.
Acer palmatum Japanese maple Sp L Requires a sheltered location. Not heat/drought tolerant.
Acer pensylvanicum Striped maple N Sp, S L Prefers shade.
Acer platanoides Norway maple S M Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions.
Acer rubrum Red/Swamp maple N S, Sp L Tolerates wet soil conditions.
Acer saccharinum Silver/River/Soft Maple N S L Brittle, weak wood is easily broken in wind and ice storms.
Acer saccharum Sugar/Rock/Hard Maple N S, Sp L Susceptible to acid rain damage and road de-icing salts. Not heat tolerant.
Acer spicatum Mountain maple N S, Sc L Best in wooded conditions.
Aesculus hippocastanum Horsechestnut S, Sp L Susceptible to many diseases, pH adaptable. Not heat tolerant.
Aesculus pavia Red buckeye N Sc L Small, shrubby.
Albizia julibrissin Mimosa, Silktree Sp M Very adaptable to high pH, soil salinity and drought. Short lived.
Amelanchier arborea Downy serviceberry, Shadblow N Sp, Sc L Tolerant of drought, but not air pollution.
Aralia spinosa Devil’s walkingstick N Sp L Tolerates poor soils and urban conditions. Dangerous spines.
Asimina triloba Pawpaw N Sp, S L Tolerant of wet soils, edible fruits.
Betula alleghaniensis Yellow birch N S, Sp L Not tolerant of heat/drought.
Betula lenta Black birch N S, Sp L Similar to above species.
Betula nigra River birch N S, Sp L Tolerates wet soils, not tolerant of pH above 6.5.
Betula papyrifera Paper/White/Canoe birch N Sp, S L Insect problems, not heat tolerant. Should not be used in difficult, polluted sites.
Betula pendula European white birch Sp, S L Prone to bronze birch borer damage. Not heat tolerant.
Broussonetia papyrifera Paper mulberry S H Tolerates most soil conditions, also heat and drought. Weedy.
Carpinus caroliniana Hornbeam N S L Tolerates wet soils and periodic flooding.
Carya cordiformis Bitternut hickory N S L Fast growing hickory. Grown from seed only, as with all hickories.
Carya glabra Pignut hickory N S, Sp L Tolerates varied soils.
Carya illinoiensis Pecan N S L Valuable for fruits.
Carya ovata Shagbark hickory N S L Interesting, peeling bark.
Carya tomentosa Mockernut hickory N S L Tolerates varied soils.
Castanea dentata American chestnut N S L Few found due to blight.
Castanea mollissima Chinese chestnut S, Sp M Tolerates hot, dry climates.
Catalpa bignonioides Southern catalpa N S L Tolerates many soil types, also hot, dry sites.
Catalpa speciosa Northern catalpa N S L Tolerates many soil types, also hot, dry sites.
Celtis laevigata Sugarberry N S L Tolerates many soil types and conditions./td>
Celtis occidentalis Common hackberry N S L Tolerates wind and poor soils, pH adaptable.
Cercis canadensis Eastern redbud N Sp, S L Adapts to urban conditions.
Chioanthus virginicus Fringetree N Sp L Tolerates partial shade and air pollution.
Cladrastis kentuckea Yellowwood Sp, S L Prune in summer. Not heat tolerant.
Cornus florida Flowering dogwood N Sp, S L Not suitable for hot, dry, exposed areas or in poorly drained soils.
Cornus kousa Kousa/Chinese dogwood Sp, S L Will not tolerate wet soils. More heat tolerant than above species.
Crataegus crus-galli Cockspur hawthorn N Sp L Stems are covered with large thorns. Susceptible to rust diseases.
Crateagus phaenopyrum Washington hawthorn N Sp L Stems are covered with large thorns. Susceptible to rust diseases.
Diospyros virginiana Persimmon N S L Tolerates poor, dry soils, pH adaptable.
Elaeagnus angustifolia Russian-olive Sc, S L Salt tolerant and withstands drought. Not heat tolerant, weedy.
Fagus grandifolia American beech N S, Sp M Root system is easily damaged by construction. Needs good soils.
Fagus sylvatica European beech S, Sp M Does not tolerate heat well.
Fraxinus americana White ash N S L Good resistance to heat and drought.
Fraxinus nigra Black ash N S L Tolerates wet soils and periodic flooding.
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Green ash N S L Tolerates drought, high soil pH, salt and poor soils.
Ginkgo biloba Ginko, Maidenhair tree S, Sp L Urban tolerant. Fruits are unsightly and malodorous, use male cultivars.
Gleditsia triancanthos var.inermis Thornless Honeylocust N S L olerates drought, soil salts and high pH. Use thornless forms, thorns are dangerous.
Gymnocladus dioicus Kentucky coffeetree N S L Tolerates drought and urban conditions.
Halesia carolina Carolina silverbell N Sp L Prefers moist soil. Understory tree.
Juglans cinerea Butternut N S L Slow growing. Tolerates varied conditions.
Juglans nigra Black walnut N S L Prime timber tree. Phytotoxic to many other plants.
Koelreuteria paniculata Goldenraintree Sp, S L Tolerates heat, drought, air pollution and poor fertility.
Liquidambar styraciflua Sweetgum N S, Sp L Suitable tree for wet soils.
Liriodendron tulipifera Tuliptree, Tulip poplar N S, Sp L Does not tolerate poor growing conditions.
Maclura promifera Osage orange N S, Sc L Tolerates drought, wind, extreme heat and wet soils.
Magnolia acuminata Cucumber magnolia N S, Sp L Does not tolerate extremely dry or wet soils.
Magnolia stellata Star magnolia Sp L Heat tolerant.
Magnolia tripetala Umbrella magnolia N Sp L Coarse texture.
Magnolia virginiana Sweetbay magnolia N Sp, S L Tolerates wet soils, but not drought.
Magnolia x soulangiana Saucer magnolia Sp L Resistant to air pollution. Prone to spring frost damage.
Malus sp. Flowering crabapple Sp L Species is prone to insect and disease problems.
Melia azdarach Chinaberry S L Rapid grower with very weak wood. Poison fruit.
Metaseqouia glyptostroboides Dawn redwood Sp, S H Species has existed for at least 50 million years. Prefers moist, well-drained soils.
Morus alba White mulberry - S L Very adaptable tree. Prone to insect and disease problems.
Morus rubra Red mulberry N S L Edible fruits.
Nyssa sylvatica Black gum, Black tupelo, Sour gum, Swamp tupelo N S, Sp L Not tolerant of air pollution or alkaline soils. Tolerates wet soils.
Ostrya virginiana Hophornbeam N S L Tolerates dry soils.
Oxydendrum arboreum Sourwood, Sorrel tree, Lily-of-the-valley tree N Sp, S L Not resistant to drought or air pollution.
Paulownia tomentosa Empress tree, Paulownia Sp, S L Withstands air pollutants and does well in coastal areas and mountain valleys.
Platanus occidentalis American sycamore N S M Tolerates urban conditions with wet or dry soils, prone to disease problems.
Platanus x acerifolia London planetree - S M Very tolerant to urban conditions.
Populus alba White poplar - S L Tolerant of most soil conditions. Brittle wood, not suitable for residential use.
Populus deltoides Cottonwood N S L Tolerant of most soil conditions. Short lived.
Populus grandidentata Big-toothed aspen N S L Tolerates dry soils. Valuable for pulp wood.
Prunus cerasifera Purpleleaf/cherry plum - Sp, S L Avoid heavy soils and air pollution. Prone to many insect problems.
Prunus persica Common/Flowering peach - Sp, S L Subject to many insect and disease problems. Short lived.
Prunus serotina Wild black cherry N S L Tolerates most soil types. Can become invasive. Poisonous to livestock.
Prunus serrulata Japanese flowering cherry - Sp, S L Stressed trees are more susceptible to insect and disease problems. Short lived.
Prunus subhirtella Weeping/Higan/Rosebud cherry - Sp, S L Not drought tolerant.
Prunus x yedoensis Yoshino cherry - Sp, S L Tolerates a range of soil conditions. Prone to borer attack.
Ptelea trifoliata Water ash N S L Tolerates heavy shade.
Pyrus calleryana Callery pear - S, Sp L Drought-resistant. Prune to create stronger crotch angles.
Pyrus communis Common pear - S L Prone to fireblight disease, use resistant varieties.
Quercus alba White oak N S L Very susceptible to construction damage. Tolerates various soils.
Quercus bicolor Swamp white oak N S L Tolerates wet, acidic soils.
Quercus coccinea Scarlet oak N S L Less tolerant than other oaks of adverse conditions.
Quercus falcata Southern red oak N S L Prefers drier soils.
Quercus marilandica Blackjack oak N S L Tolerates sandy soils.
Quercus nigra Water oak N S L Tolerates wet soils.
Quercus palustris Pin oak, Swamp oak N S L Will withstand very wet conditions. Maintain pH below 6.0.
Quercus phellos Willow oak N S L Transplants readily. Tolerates wet soils.
Quercus prinus Chestnut oak N S L Tolerates dry, poor soils.
Quercus rubra Red/Northern red oak N S L Moderately drought tolerant. Maintain pH below 6.0.
Quercus stellata Post oak N S L Tolerates dry, poor soil conditions.
Quercus velutina Black oak N S L Tolerates varied conditions, including poor soils.
Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust N S L Tolerates dry, saline soils. Suckering problem. Spines on young growth.
Salix babylonica Weeping willow - S, Sp L Grows in wet soils. Its vigorous, shallow root system can be a problem.
Salix matsudana ‘Tortuosa’ Corkscrew willow - Sp, S L Grows in wet soils. Its vigorous, shallow root system can be a problem.
Salix nigra Black willow N S L Grows in wet soils.
Sassafras albidum Sassafras N S, Sp L May become invasive. Difficult to transplant.
Sorbus americana Mountainash N Sp, S L Mountain region plant.
Taxodium distichum Bald cypress N S, Sp H Tolerates most soil types. Requires soil with low pH.
Tilia americana American linden, Basswood N S L Will not tolerate drought.
Tilia cordata Littleleaf linden - S, Sp L Very air pollution tolerant, pH adaptable. Susceptible to Japanese beetle damage.
Ulmus alatus Winged elm N S L May be susceptible to powdery mildew.
Ulmus americana American elm N S L Susceptible to many insects and diseases, especially Dutch elm disease – use new resistant varieties.
Ulmus parvifolia Lacebark/Chinese elm Y S, Sp L Urban tolerant. Resistant to most insect and disease problems.
Ulmus pumila Siberian elm - S L Susceptible to Dutch elm disease. Weedy.
Viburnum prunifolium Blackhaw viburnum N Sc, Sp L Adaptable to many soil types.
Zelkova serrata Japanese zelkova S L Tolerant of drought, wind and air pollution, pH adaptable.

Types of Deciduous Shrubs

Table 7.3: A Guide to Common Types of Deciduous Shrubs in the Home Garden.
Native (N)
N = Native to Mid-Atlantic
Use
S = Shade,
F = Foundation,
Sp = Specimen,
H = Hedge,
Sc = Screen,
GC = Ground Cover
Flame Rating (FR)
H = Very Flammable
M = Moderate
L = Low
Scientific Name Common Name N Use FR Comments
Aesculus parviflora Bottlebrush buckeye N Sc, Sp L Well-suited for use under shade trees.
Alnus rugosa (or serrulata) Spotted alder N Sc L Tolerates wet soils.
Amorpha fruticosa Indigobush amorpha, False indigo N Sc L Tolerates poor soils.
Aronia arbutifolia Red chokeberry N Sc L Well adapted to many soil types and to warm or cold climates.
Aronia melanocarpa Black chokeberry N Sc L Well adapted to many soil types, prefers cold climates.
Baccharis halimifolia Groundsel-bush, Salt bush N Sc H Tolerates poor soils and salt.
Berberis thunbergi Japanese barberry H, F L Handle spiny stems with care.
Buddleia davidii Butterfly bush Sp, Sc L Attracts butterflies.
Callicarpa americana Beautyberry N Sp, Sc L Prune out rank growth. Showy fruit. Best in warm climates, use introduced species in cold.
Calycanthus floridus Sweetshrub; Carolina allspice N Sp, Sc L Aromatic flowers and stems.
Castanea pumila Chinkapin, Chinquapin N Sc L Nuts for wildlife.
Ceanothus americanus New Jersey tea N Sp, Sc L Tolerates dry soil.
Cephalanthus occidentalis Buttonbush N Sc L Well suited for use in wet soils.
Chaenomeles speciosa Japanese floweringquince Sp, H, S L Well adapted to many conditions. Has spines and is susceptible to leaf diseases.
Clethra alnifolia Summersweet clethra N Sp, Sc L Well suited for use in wet soils.
Comptonia peregrina Sweetfern N Sp L Aromatic leaves and stems. Adapted to dry, sandy soil.
Cornus sericea Redosier dogwood N Sc, Sp M Provides erosion control on slopes. Prefers moist soils.
Corylus americana American hazelnut N Sc L Well adapted to many conditions.
Corylus avellana European filbert Sc L Prized for its nut production.
Cotinus coggygria Smokebush Sp, Sc L Well adapted to many conditions.
Cotoneaster horizontalis Rockspray cotoneaster F, GC L Tolerates wind, dry, poor soils, very pH adaptable.
Cytisus scoparius Scotchbroom Sp, Sc L Used for stabilizing sandy soils, pH adaptable, tolerates poor soils. Can become weedy.
Deutzia gracilis Slender deutzia Sp, Sc L Well adapted to many conditions.
Diervilla sessilifolia Southern bush-honeysuckle N H, Sc L Tolerates exposed sites.
Euonymus alatus Fall firebush, winged euonymus Sp, Sc L Not tolerant of drought or waterlogged conditions.
Euonymus americanus American euonymus, Hearts-a-bustin, Strawberry Bush N Sp, H, Sc L Very insect susceptible. Very adaptable to wet or dry soil conditions.
Forsythia x intermedia Border forsythia Sp, Sc L Tolerant of urban conditions, pH adaptable.
Hamamelis vernalis Vernal witchhazel Sp, Sc L Tolerates poorly drained soils.
Hamamelis virginiana Common witchhazel Sp, Sc L Very adaptable to climatic conditions.
Hibiscus syriacus Rose-of-Sharon N Sp, Sc L Well adapted to many conditions. Susceptible to insect problems.
Hydrangea arborescens Smooth hydrangea Sp, Sc L Suckers freely from roots, will cover large areas if not maintained.
Hydrangea macrophylla Bigleaf hydrangea N Sp, Sc L Plant parts are poisonous. Tolerates shade.
Hydrangea paniculata P.G. hydrangea, panicle hydrangea Sp, Sc L Plant parts are poisonous. Very adaptable.
Hydrangea quercifolia Oakleaf hydrangea Sp, F, GC L Plant parts are poisonous. Tolerates shade. Rugged plant.
Hypericum prolificum St. Johnswort N Sp, Sc L Excellent plant for dry, heavy soils.
Ilex verticillata Winterberry holly Sp, Sc L Tolerates wet soils.
Itea virginica Virginia sweetspire N Sp, H L Tolerates wet soils.
Jasminum nudiflorum Winter jasmine N Sp,Sc L Drought tolerant, used in erosion control.
Lagerstroemia indica Crapemyrtle Sc L Tolerant of drought and urban conditions, not cold tolerant.
Leucothoe racemosa Sweetbells leucothoe H H Tolerates wide range of conditions
Ligustrum vulgare Cimmon privet, Hedge privet N H M Subject to winter dieback in cold exposed areas. Weedy and invasive.
Ligustrum x vicaryi Golden Vicary privet Sc M Golden yellow leaves will become greenish yellow if grown in shade.
Lindera benzoin Spicebush Sp, Sc L Tolerates shade. Has scented foliage.
Lonicera fragrantissima Winter Honeysuckle N Sc, Sp L Adapts to many soils and pH levels. Weedy
Lonicera tatarica Tatarian Honeysuckle Sp, Sc L Has escaped cultivation and become a weed in some areas
Philadelphus coronarius Sweet mockorange Sc, Sp L Adapts to almost any soil condition.
Physocarpus opulifolius Nine-bark Sp, Sc L Drought resistant, pH adaptable.
Physocarpus opulifolius Nine-bark Sp, Sc L Drought resistant, pH adaptable.
Poncirus trifoliata Hardy-orange N Sp, F L Handle thorny stems with care. Soil adaptable.
Potentilla fruticosa Shrubby cinquefoil Sp, H, F L Adapts poorly to hot, humid locations.
Prunus glandulosa Flowering almond N Sp, Sc L Very adaptable, showy. Weedy.
Rhododendron calendulaceum Flame azalea Y Sp, Sc M Requires moist acidic soil.
Rhododendron periclymenoides Pinxterbloom azalea N Sp, Sc M Tolerates more shade than most deciduous azaleas.
Rhododendron priniphyllum Roseshell azalea N Sc, Sp M Will tolerate higher pH levels than most deciduous azaleas.
Rhus copallina Shining sumac N Sc L Useful for dry, rocky sites.
Rhus glabra Smooth sumac N Sc, Sp L Tolerates drought and poor soil conditions.
Rhus typhina Staghorn sumac N Sp, H L Suitable for colder climates, otherwise similar to above species.
Rosa carolina Carolina rose N Sp L Tolerates wet soil conditions.
Rosa hybrids Garden roses (florabundas, grandifloras & hydbrid teas) N Sp, H, Sc Very insect and disease susceptible. Thorny stems.
Rosa rugosa Rugose rose Sp, H, Sc L Tolerates wind, poor soils and seaside conditions.
Rosa virginiana Virginia rose Sp, Sc L Tolerates wind, poor soils and seaside conditions.
Salix discolor Pussywillow Sc, Sp L Tolerates poorly-drained soils. Short lived.
Sambucus canadensis Elderberry N Sp, F L Tolerates both wet and dry soils.
Spirea nipponica Nippon spirea N Sp, Sc L Adapts well to urban conditions.
Spirea prunifolia Bridalwreath spirea N Sp, F L Heavy pruning will destroy this shrub’s natural arching habit.
Spirea x bumalda Bumald spirea Sp, Sc L Needs well drained soil.
Spirea x vanhouttei Vanhoutte spirea Sp, Sc L Very adaptable.
Symphoricarpus orbiculatus Indian coralberry Sp, Sc L Shade tolerant.
Syringa persica Persian lilac Sp, Sc L Heat tolerant.
Syringa vulgaris Common lilac N Sc, H L Not heat tolerant. Prone to powdery mildew in humid areas. Requires soils with high pH.
Vaccinium angustifolia Lowbush blueberry Sc, H L Prized for its berries.
Vaccinium corymbosum Highbush blueberry Sp, Sc L Tolerates acid, sandy soil conditions. Wildlife food.
Vaccinium stamineum Deerberry N Sc, Sp L Tolerates dry, poor soils.
Viburnum acerifolium Mapleleaf viburnum N Sp, H, Sc L Tolerates shade and poor soils.
Viburnum carlesi Koreanspice viburnum N Sc L Early, fragrant flowers.
Viburnum dentatum Arrowwood viburnum N Sp, Sc L Tolerates high pH, heavy soils and cold temperatures.
Viburnum opulus European cranberry viburnum Sp, Sc L Tolerates wet soils, pH adaptable.
Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum Doublefile viburnum N Sc, Sp L Needs good drainage and full sun.
Viburnum trilobum Mapleleaf viburnum Sc, Sp L Not heat or drought tolerant.
Viburnum x burkwoodii Burkwood viburnum Sp, Sc L Heat and cold tolerant, adaptable to urban conditions.
Vitex angus-castus Chastetree; Vitex N Sp, H, Sc, L Adaptable to poor soils and dry sites.
Weigela florida Weigela F L Very tolerant to air pollution.

Types of Evergreen Trees

Table 7.4: A Guide to Common Types of Evergreen Trees in the Home Garden.
Native (N)
N = Native to Mid-Atlantic
Use
S = Shade,
F = Foundation,
Sp = Specimen,
H = Hedge,
Sc = Screen,
GC = Ground Cover
Flame Rating (FR)
H = Very Flammable
M = Moderate
L = Low
Scientific Name Common Name N Use FR Comments
Abies concolor White fir Y Sp H Tolerates urban conditions in cooler regions.
Abies fraseri Fraser fir N Sp H Popular as Christmas tree, use in cool regions.
Cedrus atlantica Atlas cedar Y Sp H Difficult to transplant, drought tolerant.
Cedrus deodara Deodara cedar Y Sp H Drought tolerant. Limited cold tolerance.
Cedrus libani Cedar of Lebanon Y Sp H Very cold hardy. Requires good drainage.
Chamaecyparis obtusa Hinoki falsecypress Y Sp, Sc H Requires good drainage.
Chamaecyparis pisifera Japanese falsecypress Y Sp, Sc H Requires good drainage.
Chamaecyparis thyoides Atlantic whitecedar N Sp,Sc H Adapts to wet, boggy sites.
x Cupressocyparis leylandii Leyland cypress Y Sc, Sp H Adapts to pH extremes, salt spray, poor fertility, drought.
Cupressus arizonica Arizona cypress Y Sc, Sp H Tolerates hot, dry conditions.
Ilex aquifolium English holly Y Sp H Requires good drainage and compatible male plant for berry production .(dioecious). Not cold tolerant.
Ilex x attenuata ‘Fosteri’ Fosters holly Y Sp, Sc H Urban tolerant. Dioecious.
Ilex x ‘Nellie R. Stevens’ Nellie R. Stevens holly Y Sc, Sp H Somewhat drought tolerant. Dioecious.
Ilex opaca American holly N Sp, Sc H Prone to native holly leafminer damage. Tolerates wet conditions.
Juniperus scopulorum Western redcedar Y Sc, Sp H Adapts to pH extremes, poor fertility, drought. Requires good drainage.
Juniperus virginiana Eastern redcedar N Sc, Sp H Alternate host for cedar apple rust disease. Tolerates urban conditions. Difficult to transplant.
Magnolia grandiflora Southern magnolia N Sp H Broadleaved - considerable litter.
Picea abies Norway spruce Y Sp H Tolerates cold climates and some warm climates.
Picea glauca White spruce Y Sp H Withstands drought, wind and temperature extremes.
Picea pungens Colorado spruce Y Sp H Very drought tolerant. Not heat toleant.
Pinus echinata Shortleaf pine N Sc, Sp H Difficult to transplant due to deep taproot.
Pinus nigra Austrian pine Y Sp, Sc H Resists drought and seaside conditions. Disease problems develop with age.
Pinus palustris Longleaf pine N Sp H Native plant.
Pinus pungens Table mountain pine N Sp H Native - not commercially available. Rugged plant.
Pinus rigida Pitch pine N Sp, Sc H Requires good drainage.
Pinus strobus White pine N Sp, Sc H Sensitive to heat, air pollution and salts. Requires good drainage.
Pinus taeda Loblolly pine N Sc, Sp H Tolerates salt spray, sandy soils.
Pinus thunbergiana Japanese black pine Y Sp, Sc H Tolerates salt spray, sandy soils.
Pinus virginiana Virginia pine, Jersey pine N Sc H Will grow in either sandy or heavy, clay soils.
Quercus hemisphaerica Laurel oak N S, Sp H Adapts to urban conditions. Prefers warm climates.
Quercus virginiana Live oak N S, Sp H Adapts to urban conditions. Prefers warm climates. Leaf/acorn litter.
Thuja occidentalis Northern whitecedar; Arborvitae N Sc, F, H H Requires good drainage. Not heat tolerant.
Thuja orientalis (Platycladus) Oriental arborvitae Y Sc, F, H H Adapts to many growing conditions. Subject to several insect pests.
Tsuga canadensis Canadian hemlock, Eastern hemlock N Sp, Sc H Will not tolerate drought and heat. Requires good drainage.
Tsuga caroliniana Carolina hemlock N Sp, Sc H Will not tolerate drought, requires good drainage.

Types of Evergreen Shrubs

Table 7.5: A Guide to Common Types of Evergreen Shrubs in the Home Garden.
Native (N)
N = Native to Mid-Atlantic
Use
S = Shade,
F = Foundation,
Sp = Specimen,
H = Hedge,
Sc = Screen,
GC = Ground Cover
Flame Rating (FR)
H = Very Flammable
M = Moderate
L = Low
Scientific Name Common Name N Use FR Comments
Abelia x grandiflora Glossy abelia Y H, F H Adapts to many growing conditions.
Aucuba japonica Japanese aucuba Y Sp, F, H H Requires shade. Prefers warmer climates.
Berberis julianae Wintergreen barberry Y H H Avoid contact with spiny stems and leaves.
Buxus microphylla Japanese boxwood Y F, H, Sp H Partially tolerant of drought and heat.
Buxus sempervirens American boxwood Y F, H, Sp H Leaves and stems toxic to livestock. Applications of lime are required for plant vigor.
Buxus sempervirens suffruticosa Edging box, English boxwood Y H, Sp, F H Needs well drained soil.
Camellia japonica Japanese camellia Y Sp, Sc H Subject to winter injury, use in warmer climates only.
Camellia sasanqua Sasanqua camellia Y Sp, Sc H Subject to winter injury, use in warmer climates only.
Cotoneaster dammeri Bearberry cotoneaster Y F H Tolerates wide range of conditions, use for erosion control.
Cotoneaster salicifolius Willowleaf cotoneaster Y Sc, Sp, H H Tolerates poor soils, pH adaptable. Generally pest free.
Daphne odora Winter daphne Y F, Sp H Leaves and fruit are very poisonous. Produces highly scented flowers early.
Elaeagnus pungens Thorny elaeagnus Y Sc H Tolerates salt spray, drought, air pollution & wind
Euonymus japonicus Japanese euonymus Y H, Sc H Subject to numerous pest problems.
Euonymus kiautschovicus Spreading euonymus Y H, Sc H Fruit and leaves may be toxic.
Gardenia jasminoides Gardenia, Cape jasmine Y Sp, Sc, F H Requires well drained, acidic soil. Use in warmer climates only.
Ilex cornuta Chinese holly Y Sc, Sp H Very adaptable to drought, pH, and to many soil types.
Ilex crenata Japanese holly Y H, F H Mildly drought tolerant. Needs well drained soil.
Ilex glabra Inkberry holly N H, F H May be grown in acid soils on wet sites.
Ilex vomitoria Yaupon holly N H, F, Sc H Tolerant of most soil conditions and salt spray. Use in warmer climates only.
Ilex x meserveae Meserve holly, Blue holly Y Sp H A male cultivar is necessary for berry production.
Juniperus chinensis Chinese juniper Y F, H, Sc H Tolerant of salt and alkaline soils.
Kalmia latifolia Mountain-laurel N Sp, F H Leaves are poisonous. Requires shade.
Leucothoe fontanesiana Drooping leucothoe N F, Sp H Not tolerant of drought or wind.
Ligustrum japonicum Japanese privet, Waxleaf ligustrum Y H, Sc H Adapts to poor fertility, drought, sun or shade and salt.
Mahonia aquifolium Oregon grapeholly Y Sp, H, F H Susceptible to winter dessication.
Mahonia bealei Beale’s mahonia, Leatherleaf mahonia Y Sp, H, F H Requires good soil drainage.
Myrica cerifera Waxmyrtle; Southern bayberry N Sc, Sp H Very tolerant of soil salts and salt spray.
Myrica pensylvanica Northern bayberry N Sc, Sp H Very tolerant of soil salts and salt spray. More cold tolerant than the above species.
Nandina domestica Nandina Y Sp, F, Sc H Tolerates a wide range of conditions.
Osmanthus heterophyllus Holly osmanthus Y Sc, Sp H Tolerates a wide range of conditions in warm climates.
Photinia x fraseri Fraser photinia; Red-tip Y Sc, H, Sp H Very susceptible to leaf spot disease.
Pieris japonica Japanese pieris Y Sp, F H Protect from wind desiccation. Requires soils with lower pH.
Pinus mugo Mugho pine Y F, Sc H Susceptible to many insect and disease problems.
Prunus laurocerasus Cherry laurel, English laurel Y Sc, H H Fruit and leaves may be mildly poisonous.
Pyracantha coccinea Pyracantha, Firethorn Y Sp, H, F H Tolerates drought. Avoid spines.
Raphiolepis indica Indian hawthorn Y Sp, F, H H Salt and wind tolerant. Use in warm climates.
Rhododendron catawbiense Catawba rhododendron N Sp, Sc H Not heat or drought tolerant. Requires acid soil.
Rhododendron maxima Rosebay rhododendron N Sp, Sc H Requires acid soil. Not heat tolerant.
Rhododendron obtusum Kurume azalea Y Sp, F, Sc H Requires well drained acid soil.
Rhododendron sp. Hybrid azaleas Y Sp, F, Sc H Requires well drained acid soil.
Taxus baccata English yew Y F, H, Sc H Plant parts are very poisonous. Requires well drained soil.
Taxus cuspidata Japanese yew Y F, H, Sc H Plant parts are very poisonous. Requires well drained soil.
Taxus x media Anglojap yew Y F, H, Sc H Leaves are very poisonous. Requires well drained soil.
Viburnum rhytidophyllum Leatherleaf viburnum Y Sp, H, Sc H Not wind or heat tolerant.
Yucca filamentosa Yucca, Adam’s needle yucca N Sp, GC H Drought resistant and generally maintenance free.

Types of Ground Covers

Table 7.6: A guide to common types of Ground Covers in the Home Garden.
Native (N)
N = Native to Mid-Atlantic
Use
S = Shade,
F = Foundation,
Sp = Specimen,
H = Hedge,
Sc = Screen,
GC = Ground Cover
Flame Rating (FR)
H = Very Flammable
M = Moderate
L = Low
Scientific Name Common Name N Use FR Comments
Ajuga reptans Ajuga, Bugleweed GC L Not drought tolerant. Prefers light shade.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Bearberry, Kinnickinick N GC L Adapts to many growing conditions. Prefers well-drained soils.
Euonymus fortunei Wintergreen euonymus GC L Many forms exist, some vines. Best planted in sun. Prone to insect problems.
Gaultheria procumbens Wintergreen N GC L Good for woodland sites.
Hypericum calycinum St. Johnswort GC L Used in erosion control. Poisonous.
Juniperus conferta Shore juniper GC H Tolerates sandy soils. Requires good drainage, full sun.
Juniperus horizontalis Creeping juniper N GC H Grows in many soil types. Requires good drainage, full sun.
Juniperus procumbens Jap. garden juniper GC H Grows in many soil types. Requires good drainage, full sun.
Liriope muscari Bigblue liriope GC L Semi-tolerant of drought.
Liriope spicata Liriope GC L Excellent for erosion control, drought and salt tolerant. Grows under shallow rooted trees.
Ophiopogon japonicum Monkeygrass GC L Good for erosion control, drought tolerant. Prefers warm climates.
Opuntia spp. Prickly pear N GC L Native to arid regions, but very climate adaptable. Has spiny stems.
Pachysandra terminalis Pachysandra GC L Not tolerant to foot traffic or full sun conditions.
Rhus aromatica Fragrant sumac GC L Good for erosion control, tolerates drought.
Sarcococca hookerana var. humilis Sweetbox GC L Tolerates air pollution.
Sedum spp. Sedum GC L Drought tolerant & maintenance free.
Vinca minor Periwinkle; Vinca GC L Good for erosion control, finer texture than V. major. Prefers a shaded location.

Types of Vines

Table 7.7: A guide to common types of Vines in the home garden.
Native (N)
N = Native to Mid-Atlantic
Use
S = Shade,
F = Foundation,
Sp = Specimen,
H = Hedge,
Sc = Screen,
GC = Ground Cover
Flame Rating (FR)
H = Very Flammable
M = Moderate
L = Low
Scientific Name Common Name N Use FR Comments
Aristolochia durior Dutchman’s pipe L Vigorous, low maintenance.
Bignonia capreolata Crossvine L Vigorous, requires pruning and support. Showy. Native species are also available.
Campsis radicans Trumpet-creeper, Trumpet vine N M nvasive. Requires pruning and support. Showy.
Celastrus scandens Bittersweet N M A male plant is required for fruit set (dioecious). Invasive.
Clematis virginiana Virgin’s bower N May be used as groundcover. Vigorous.
Clematis x Jackmanii Jackman clematis L Fairly fragile, requires support. Non-aggressive. Showy.
Gelsemium sempervirens Carolina jessamine N L Evergreen. Showy. Poisonous.
Hydrangea anomala petiolaris Climbing hydrangea L Slow to establish. Requires support. Showy.
Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle H Can be used as groundcover. Invasive. Weedy.
Lonicera sempervirens Trumpet honeysuckle N L Requires pruning and support. Showy.
Lonicera x heckrottii Goldflame honeysuckle L Requires support. Showy.
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper N L Requires support, will cover walls. Tolerates urban conditions.
Parthenocissus tricuspidata Boston ivy L Tolerates urban conditions.
Passiflora incarnata Passionflower, Maypop N L Requires support, can be used as groundcover. Showy.
Passiflora lutea Yellow passionflower N L Less showy.
Phus radicans Poison ivy N M Triggers skin allergies in most people. Invasive.
Polygonum aubertii Silverlace vine, Fleece vine L Very vigorous and adaptable. Showy.
Rosa spp. Climbing roses L High maintenance. Requires support. Showy.
Smilax rotundifolia Greenbrier, Smilax, Catbrier N L Weedy, invasive. Evergreen forms exist.